Hydraulics Maurizio Brocchini
Knowledge of the basics of Mathematical Analysis (e.g. infinitesimal calculus, theory of integration, solution of differential equations), Classical Physics (e.g. Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Optics and Thermodynamics).
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The course allows the students to acquire the basis for the interpretation and description of the problems typical of the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics. The course also aims at forming a graduate engineer capable of identifying, formulating and solving the problems of the Hydraulics.CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
To the aim of facing advanced theoretical and applicative themes, also of great complexity, the student will have to acquire capabilities of design and critical analysis for the problems typical of the Hydraulics. Such capabilities will be expressed through the ability to solve applicative Hydraulics problems, with specific reference to problems of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics. TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
The teaching of the Hydraulics contributes, along with the teaching of the Physics, to introduce the fundamental laws of Fluid Mechanics, emphasizing the investigation methodologies and the descriptive rigour of the phenomena under scrutiny. Moreover, along with the teaching of the Structural Engineering, provides and deepens the theoretical foundations of the Continuum Mechanics, with reference to the fluids.
Introduction to the scheme of fluid continuum. The forces acting on a fluid. Quiescent fluids and the equation of the hydrostatic. The pressure in a quiescent fluid. The equation of state. Interfacial phenomena. The static thrust of a fluid on planar/non-planar surfaces. The fluids in motion: kinematics and local flow analysis. The principles of fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The Cauchy equation. Thermo-conductive, viscous fluids: constitutive laws and the theorem of mechanical power. The flow problem: the Navier-Stokes equation. Fundamental solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. High Reynolds numbers flows. Vorticity dynamics and the Bernoulli theorem. The irrotational flows. Examples of planar irrorational flows. Dimensional analysis, similitude and models. The boundary layer theory. Friction and shape flow resistance. The separation of the boundary layer. Fundamentals of turbulent flows. Turbulent flows in pipes. The wall turbulence. The fluid streams. The equations for fluid streams. Distributed head losses. The flow in circular pipes. Localized head losses. Problems of design and control of hydraulic plants. Free-surface streams: the steady-uniform flow, the equation for the free-surface location, free-surface solutions for the riverine and torrent regimes. The hydraulic jump. Examples
Development of the examination
LEARNING EVALUATION METHODS
Pass of a written test, made of 2 exercises and 2 questions, with a valuation of at least 18/30 to access the oral exam.
LEARNING EVALUATION CRITERIA
To positively pass the exam, the student has to demonstrate, through the above-mentioned tests, to be well acquainted with both theoretical concepts and use of the applicative tools of the Hydraulics.
LEARNING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
For each of the above-mentioned tests a mark between zero and thirty is given and each test is passed if a mark larger than 18/30 is obtained. In particular, it is necessary that the student gets at least six thirtieths in each of the 2 exercises contained in the written test.
FINAL MARK ALLOCATION CRITERIA
The overall mark, in thirties, is given by the sum of the mark of the written test and a mark ranging between -5/30 and +5/30, as function of the correct answering to the question made during the oral assessment. The highest mark is achieved by a clear demonstration of the knowledge of the course contents. Honours are reserved to students who, having correctly and fully completed all the tests, have demonstrated an exceptionally clear knowledge of the topics.
Marchi E. e Rubatta A., Meccanica dei Fluidi, UTET, Torino, 1981; Cengel Y e Cimbala J, Meccanica dei Fluidi, McGraw Hill, Milano, 2007. Notes of the course of Hydraulics (with exercises) available at the "Centro Copie" of the Faculty.
- Ingegneria Meccanica (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))
- Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))