Applied Measurement Techniques
Foundamentals of Measurement techniques and Biomedical Instrumentation.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The course is aiming to present the main advanced measurement methods for the biomedical engineering and the medicine. In particular, the course will provide advanced knowledge on the technologies and the biomedical instrumentation used in medicine for diagnosis and treatment scopes, describing their working principles and analyzing their main technical characteristics. These knowledges, together with the ones acquired in the Laurea degree courses, and in particular in the course of misure meccaniche e strumentazione biomedica, will allow the student to gain a detailed knowledge on the measurement methodologies, technologies and biomedical instrumentation presently available.CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The content of the course will allow the student to efficiently operate in the biomedical engineering sector as a designer of systems or as developer of novel products and technologies. The student will have to be able to analyze the working principle of the biomedical instrumentation and to understand the technologies commonly utilize din the biomedical sector. Moreover, he will develop specific skills for the classification of the instrumentation, for the analysis of the measurement performances of systems and for the identifications of main critical issues in the installation and use of such devices. Finally, the student will have to develop skills for teamworkTRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
The student will develop the skill to analyze complex measurement systems, identifying their working principles, the main components and the most relevant measurement characteristics. The didactic activity will also include the laboratory sessions and the (voluntary) preparation of a project aiming to analyze and present a biomedical system of high-technology level.
1. Imaging systems :
Ultrasound imaging: Generation and propagation of ultrasound; Interaction with tissues; Ultrasound beam shaping; Probes and imaging modes; Image formation and ultrasound tomography; Eco-Doppler, Color Doppler e Power Doppler.
X-ray imaging: Generation and propagation of X-rays; Emission spectra and attenuation coefficient; X-ray tube and X-ray machine; Rotating anode; Focal spot; Generation of the image; X-ray system; Fluoroscopy; Image Intensifier and dynamic radiography; X-ray film, anti-diffusion grid, Pottery-Bucky table; Analogue and digital radiography.
X-ray Computed Tomography (CT): Tomographic systems; Mechanical tomography; CT scanners modalities; Axial computed tomography; Reconstruction algorithms; Filtering and artifact removal; Gantry; CT machine generations; System components of a modern multislice CT machine; Sensors and CT numbers.
Nuclear Medial Imaging (PET e SPECT): Radio-Isotopes and radiation; Physics of radiation and interaction with tissues; Sensors for radiations: Ionization chambers and scintillating crystals; Pulse Height Analyser (PHA); Uptake monitoring equipment; Gamma camera; PET e PET/CT systems.
2. Therapeutic equipment:
Ablation: Tissue ablation; Electric ablation; radiofrequency ablation; Ultrasound ablation; Lithotriptors, Acoustic intensity and focusing; Cryoablation; Microwave ablation; Chemical ablation
Biomedical lasers: Physics and laser proprieties; Configuration and classification of laser sources; Laser and tissue interaction; Safety aspects; Clinical use of lasers
Radiotherapy: Biological effects of radiations; Dose and fractioning; internal radiotherapy (brachytherapy); External radiotherapy; Planning and modalities of treatment; High-voltage X-ray machine; Betatron; Cobalt-60 machine; Gamma Knife; linear accelerator; Cyberknife.
Endoscopy: Functioning principle; Rigid endoscopes; Flexible endoscopes; Main components and scheme; Ultrasound endoscopic probes.
Infusion pumps: Modalities of infusion; gravity-fed infusion systems; Mechanical pumps; peristaltic pumps; Volumetric Pumps; Scheme of a infusion pump and alarm systems; closed-loop control system: the insulin portable pump.
Ventilators: Respiratory apparatus; Artificial ventilation, types off ventilators; Negative-Positive ventilators; Control systems in ventilators.
Biosensors: Chemical sensors; Blood sensors, electrochemical sensors; pH, PO2 and PCO2 s sensors; Glucose sensors; Optical sensors; Pulse-oxymeters; Clinical laboratory instrumentation; spectrophotometry.
Telemedicine: The principle of telemedicine; Sensing and sensor networks in telemedicine; Telecardiology; Teleradiology; Home-monitoring systems.
3. Technical norms and standards for biomedical device: Medical device: definition and standard; General aspects on apparatus safety (electric, optic and radiology) for biomedical instrumentation.
Development of the examination
LEARNING EVALUATION METHODS
The exam consists in an oral discussion on the course topics. During this exam, the student has to present the various instrumentation, to answer to the eventual questions relative to the measurement methods, object of the course, and to be able to critically discuss the various course topics.
LEARNING EVALUATION CRITERIA
The evaluation criteria are: Completeness of the exposition, student skills on clearly expose the argument requested will be used as evaluation criteria and to analyse the design and opeartive aspects of the different instrumentations. The correct use of terminology and of correct instruments and methods will also be taken in consideration.
LEARNING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
The measurement criteria are: Capacity to present in an exhaustive manner the course argument and coherent and critical analysis of the arguments object of the exam.
FINAL MARK ALLOCATION CRITERIA
Full mark will be given to the student if during the oral exam he/she will demonstrate a full knowledge of the course arguments, an autonomous and complete capacity of analysis and presentation of the course arguments.
R.S. Khandpur, Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation, McGraw-Hill; J.W. Webster, Medical Intrumentation: Application and Design, Houghton. J.D. Bronzino, The Biomedical Engineering - Handbook Vol I & II, CRC Press E.A. Cromwell, F.J. Weibell, E.A.Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Prentice-Hall; Francesco Paolo Branca, Ingegneria Clinica, Springer-Verlag; Francesco Paolo Branca, Fondamenti di Ingegneria Clinica vol.2, Springer-Verlag;
Copy of the slides utilised during the course are available on the moodle website of the course (https://lms.univpm.it/enrol/index.php?id=460).
- Biomedical Engineering (Corso di Laurea Magistrale (DM 270/04))