Facoltà di Ingegneria - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)

Circuit Theory: Kirchhoff's Laws; nodal analysis; Substitution, Thevenin's and Norton's theorems; two-port netowork; Laplace transform. Mathematics: complex number, derivative, integral, first order differential equations, Fourier series.

The course objective is to gain insights into one of the sectors that characterize Electronics: analog circuits. The course, integrating the basic knowledge acquired on the circuit theory from previous courses, has the main objective to increase knowledge of analog circuits based on non-linear devices such as diode, bipolar junction transistors and field-effect transistor. This objective is expressed in knowing and understanding the basis for the analysis and design of basic analog circuit blocks: a single stage amplifier, with feedback amplifiers, operational amplifiers, oscillators.

The acquired knowledge will be tested through the analysis of analog circuits, the design of the fundamental analog circuit blocks and laboratory activities.

The laboratory group activities allow to stimulate the ability to work in teams, to apply their knowledge in a real context and integrate the knowledge gained in other courses.

Content (class, 64 hours) Introduction. Non-linear circuit analysis: linearization, DC analysis, AC analysis. Elements of circuit theory: linear active and passive components, voltage division and current division, amplifier representations. Operational amplifier: The ideal Op-Amp. Basic circuits with the op-amp. Frequency behavior. The diode: DC characteristic, piecewise linear model, small-signal model. Zener diode. Circuits with diodes: limiting, rectifiers, and peak holders. BJT: Qualitative behavior of the BJT. I-V characteristics. Biasing circuits. Single transistor amplifiers with BJT: Common emitter, common emitter with emitter resistance, common base, and common collector: AC and DC behaviors. MOSFET: Qualitative behavior of the MOSFET: threshold voltage, channel length modulation and body effect. I-V characteristics. Biasing circuits. Single transistor amplifiers with MOSFET: Common source, common gate, and common drain: AC and DC behaviors Frequency behavior: Single stage amplifiers analyzed with the time constant method. Multistage and differential amplifiers: DC analysis. Small-signal analysis: differential gain, common mode gain, CMRR. Differential amplifier with active load. Multistage amplifiers. Current mirrors with MOSFETs and BJTs: Mirror with emitter resistances, Wilson's mirror, modified Wilson's mirror, and cascode mirror. Feedback: Negative feedback properties. The four feedback topologies: series-series, shunt-shunt, series-shunt, shunt-series. The stability. Power stages: Class A, B, and AB power stages. Oscillators: Sinusoidal oscillator. Describing function method. Characteristic function method. Colpitts oscillators. Quartz oscillators. Multivibrators. Class and Lab exercises (10 hours) Class training for the written test. Lab experiment on amplifiers with OP-Amp: Unit Gain Amplifier, Non-inverting Amplifier, Inverting Amplifier, Integrator. Lab experiment on astable multivibrators.

The evaluation of the student's learning consists of two parts: - A written test, consisting in the solution of a circuit, to be completed in two hours; the exercise will be divided into parts whose solution may be propaedeutic for the next; - An oral, consisting in the discussion of one or more topics covered in the course; during the oral exam the solution of simple exercises may also be required. The written test is propaedeutic for the oral exam, to access to which students must pass the access threshold. The oral exam must be sustained in the same exam session of the written test. In case of failure of the oral exam, the student must also repeat the written test.

The evaluation of learning can be considered as positive if the student demonstrates the ability to analyze, solve and understand the usefulness of the circuits studied during the course (for example: single transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers, multistage amplifiers with feedback, oscillators). Furthermore he must demonstrate an understanding of the methods of analysis of the circuit performances (eg analysis in DC and AC, analysis in the Laplace domain or in the frequency domain, method of the time constants). All this can not be achieved without the knowledge of the operation of the devices presented during the course, neither the previous requirements.

For each of the tests is assigned a score out of thirty. The ability to analyze and solve circuits will be assessed through the written test. The threshold for access to the oral test is fixed at fifteen thirtieths. Knowledge and understanding of the topics covered in the course will be evaluated through oral examination.

In order that the overall outcome of the evaluation is positive, the student must achieve a rating of not severely inadequate oral test and at least sufficiency in the average of the two tests, written and oral. The final grade is given by the average of the written and the oral test. The written test is given by the weighted average of the ratings of the individual parts. Praise is given to students who, having done all the tests so correctly, have demonstrated a particular brightness in the oral and in

Simone Orcioni, Elettronica Analogica. Dispense del corso. Terza edizione, Pitagora Editrice, 2014. A. Sedra, K. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press.

- Ingegneria Elettronica (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))

**Università Politecnica delle Marche**

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