Misure Meccaniche e Strumentazione Biomedica
Mechanical measurements and biomedical instrumentation Enrico Primo Tomasini
Fundamentals of math and physics.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The course has the aim to provide to the student with fundamental knowledge of correct design and use of the measurement systems, with particular attention to the area of the biomedical instrumentation and measurement procedures for human health.CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
For the sector of the biomedical engineering, this course will provide the knowledge for the design and correct use the measurement devices for mechanical, thermal and flu dynamical fields, with specific attention to the biomedical instrumentation and human health sector.
The course will have a frontal lessons and laboratory/seminars. TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
The student will develop the skill to analyze the fundamental measurement systems and main transducers The didactic activity will also include the laboratory sessions/seminars and the preparation of a project aiming to analyze and present a standard biomedical system.
1. Basic concepts of biomedical instrumentation: General concepts on the measurement systems and biomedical instrumentation. General requirements for the medical devices. Static and dynamic characteristics of measurement systems. 2. Basic sensors and principles of use in biomedical instrumentation. Displacement sensors used in biomedical instrumentation. (potentiometers, strani-gages, ultrasonic transducers, encoder, etc.). Velocity and acceleration sensors (piezoelectric ed ICP, accelerometers and ultrasounds). Force sensor used in biomedical instrumentation (straingages, dynamometers and force platform). Pressure and acoustic sensor used in biomedical instrumentation (manometer, elastic transducers, microphones, stethoscope, phonocardiograph, etc). Fuid velocity and flow sensors (Pitot tube, hot-wire and hot-film anemometers, ultrasound, turbine meters) used in biomedical instrumentation (blood flow meters, plethysmograph, etc). Temperature sensors (Thermocouples, thermometers, thermistors, infrared thermography). 3. Chemical biosensors: Electrochemical transducers. Sensors for the measurement of the PO2, PCO2 and pH. Fiber optics biosensors. Fluorescence sensors. ISFET and IMFET biosensors. 4. Biopotentials and biopotential amplifiers: Polarization and depolarization of the cell. Bio-potentials. Measurement of biopotential. Design of bio-amplifier. 5. Electrocardiography and elettroencephalography: Electrical activity of the heart. The Einthoven triangle. Augmented limb leads. Frontal and transverse plane ECG/EKG. Analogue and digital ECG/EKG systems. Holter. Electroencephalographic signals. EEG equipment and normal settings. 6. Blood pressure measurement and cardiac sounds. Indirect measurement of blood pressure. Sphygmomanometer. Oscillometric method. Ultrasound method. Phonocardiography. Direct measurement of blood pressure. 7. Measurements of the respiratory system: Fluid dynamics of the respiration. Measurement of the gas-flow rate. Plethysmograpy. Spirometer. Pneumotachograph. Introduction to medical imaging systems. 8.Information content of an image. Ecography. Radiography. TAC. MRI. 9. Introduction to devices for therapy, surgery and electrical safety. Cardiac pacemaker. Defibrillators. Laser for surgery and therapeutic use. 10. Laboratory activity. Design and preparation of measurement systems. Data acquisition and processing. Biopotential measurement. Force measurement: Force platform and dynamometer
Development of the examination
LEARNING EVALUATION METHODS
All of the students have to discuss an experimental project concerning one of the course subjects. This project can be developed individually or in groups of max. 3 students. The examination consists in an oral discussion and the presentation of the experimental project and in an oral discussion of the subjects discussed during the course.
LEARNING EVALUATION CRITERIA
Presentation of the final mark expressed in thirtieths, evaluating the answers on the basis of accuracy, completeness, deepening, exposure method and the experimental project according to diligence and deepening level.
LEARNING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
The student, during the thesis discussion and the oral exam, has to prove to know the program arguments. To pass the exam successfully, the student has to demonstrate to have a global knowledge of the teaching contents, exposed correctly with the usage of suitable technical terminology, with the formal and graphic engineering instruments, that is schemes, block diagrams, analytical formulations, exc
With regard to the experimental project, the student has to prove to have accurately carried out the consigned task and to have a deep knowledge on that argument, on the laboratory instrumentation and to be able to use the multimedial presentation instrument, useful for the future career. The best mark will be obtained proving a deep knowledge of the teaching contents, exposed with perfect mastery of the technical language.
FINAL MARK ALLOCATION CRITERIA
The exam consists of three questions and the discussion of the experimental project, the mark will be expressed in thirties. The final mark is the mean value of the marks of each question and it represents an overall rating of the exam. Full mark with honours will be granted to the students who will demonstrate a great mastery of the subjects.
Francesco Paolo Branca, Ingegneria Clinica, Springer-Verlag J.W. Webster, Medical Intrumentation: Application and Design, Houghton. R.S. Khandpur, Biomedical Instrumentation, McGraw-Hill J.D. Bronzino, The Biomedical Engineering - Handbook Vol I & II, CRC Press E.A. Cromwell, F.J. Weibell, E.A.Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Prentice-Hall
- Ingegneria Biomedica (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))