Environmental Hydraulics Maurizio Brocchini
Knowledge of the basics of Mathematical Analysis (e.g. infinitesimal calculus, theory of integration, solution of differential equations), Classical Physics (e.g. Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Optics and Thermodynamics) and Hydraulics.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The course allows the students to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the problems related with the mixing of natural fluids and of pollutant transport. This contributes to increase the capability of design and understanding of complex systems for the environmental safety, the soil defense and protection against natural risks.CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
To the aim of facing advanced theoretical and applicative themes, also of great complexity, the student will have to tackle exercises of increasing complexity, always finalized to the testing of their design capabilities and critical analysis of the applicative problems typical of the Environmental Hydraulics.TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
The teaching contributes to establishing a proper culture for the implementation of civil works in the environment, the prevention of natural risks, the management of refuses, the development and application of techniques for pollution control and the construction of chemical and environmental plants.
Definitions. The Fick law. The molecular diffusion in a quiescent fluid. The method of images. The diffusion-convection in a fluid in laminar flow motion. Fundamentals of turbiulent flows. The turbulent diffusion: the clouds of tracers. The Taylor's theory on turbulent diffusion. The equation for convetcion and turbulent diffusion. The laminar dispersion: Taylor's theory and Elder's theory. The free turbulence. The self-similar solution for the jet case. Entarinment, mixing and mass transport. Denso-mechanic phenomena: the bouyant jets and the plumes. The mixing in natural streams: the near, intermediate and far fields. The mixing in groundwater flows for both uniform and non-uniform terrains. Evaluation of feasible and reliable forecasting models for the evaluation of pollutants dispersion. The mixing of reactive tracers. The oxygen balance in absence of mixing. The re-oxygenation process. The oxygen balance in presence of mixing. Mixing processes in groundwater flows. Physical properties of soils. The Darcy Law. The transport of solutes in heterogeneous aquifers.
Development of the examination
LEARNING EVALUATION METHODS
Oral test and numerical project on the solution of the convection-diffusion equation.
LEARNING EVALUATION CRITERIA
To positively pass the exam, the student has to demonstrate, through the above-mentioned tests, to be well acquainted with both theoretical concepts and use of the applicative tools of the Environmental Hydraulics.
LEARNING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
Final mark, in thirtieths.
FINAL MARK ALLOCATION CRITERIA
The final mark will be made by summing the marks of the oral tests and of thel numerical project. The student will obtain max 5 marks for the numerical project. The oral test consists of three questions. Each question will be marked between 0 and 10 points. Honours will be given to those students who, reaching the highest marks, demonstrate a full mastery of the topics.
Fischer, H.B. et al., Mixing in inland and coastal waters, Academic Press. Notes of the course of Environmental Hydraulics available at the Centro Copie of the Faculty.
- Ingegneria Civile (Corso di Laurea Magistrale (DM 270/04))