Topography Gabriele Fangi
Linear algebra and drawing concepts
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The course enables students to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge of surveying, reminding the basic concepts of geodesy and mapping in order then to deepen by means of instruments and ICT technology the surveying process. Such knowledge will be upgraded with photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS skills, introducing also the statistical processing of the measures, to complete the knowledge of the geomatics. In this manner the student acquires a clear awareness of the use of such techniques which provide the necessary elements for a technical approach to the analysis and understanding of civil and environmental engineering applications.CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students must learn to identify the correct survey methods and the related technologies for a correct data survey acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the results, to employ for different engineering purposes: civil or environmental. This is to enable them to apply this knowledge when tackling advanced design themes, including those of a very complex nature; they should also be able apply the knowledge for the purposes of innovation and for developing new products and technological processes. This will be expressed through the development of a mixture of both organizational and professional skills, including: 1. the ability to appropriately choose the correct survey methods and technologies suitable for their applications; 2. the ability to make a correct analysis of the survey results by means of the statistical data processing; 3. the ability to read, understand and organize into a GIS the cartographic results of a photogrammetric or satellite survey, like maps, orthoimages and digital terrain models (DTM). TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
Classroom practice and solution of exercises about the statistical processing of the measures will improve the level of independent judgement, the ability to communicate, the capacity for independent learning and the ability to draw conclusions.
Content (lectures 60 hours)
Geodesy and Cartography
The surface datum: geoid, ellipsoid, their differences. The coordinate systems. Geodetic elements of these surfaces: meridians and parallels. The cartographic representations. The Italian Official Cartography. Numerical cartography. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
Planimetrical Surveying. Measures of angles and distances. Instruments. Schemes of measure: triangulations, intersections, space resections, traverses. Geodetic networks by IGM. Reduction and insertion of the measures in the map of Gauss. Altimetrical Surveying. Geometric and trigonometric levelling. The national heigh network. Equations of the direct measures and the processing of the network. The system of global survey GPS (Global Positioning System). The laser scanning.
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
The analytical-geometrical espressions. The acquisition of the images, their orientation and the graphical and numerical restitution. The digital products: orthoimages and DEM. The data acquired by the satellite sensor and processed by remote sensing techniques to produce thematic Land Use Land Cover maps.
Treatment of the measures
Statistic variables. Monodimensional and multi-dimensional distributions . Normal distribution of Gauss and normalization. Theory of the connection, regression and correlation. Parametric and distribution free tests, test of the sigma zero. Propagation of the variances-covariances. Least square adjustment using the indirect measurements.
Classroom exercises (12 hours)
Instrumental exercises: use of topographic instruments on field, acquisition and management of the measurements. Particular focus is about the new generation surveying instruments (laser scanner and UAV ).
Development of the examination
LEARNING EVALUATION METHODS
The evaluation of the learning level of the student consists in two written tests:
- one written test, related to the topics of the treatment of the measurements, to complete in two hours. Books or other texts are allowed.
- another written test, made of thirty questions with multiple answers or free, that interests every topic of the course program. It takes fifty minutes. No books or other tools are allowed.
The negative result of one of the tests doesnt invalidate the other test already passed in positive way. The positive assessment of both tests allows the admission to the oral test, that consists in the discussion on one or more topics showed in the class. In case of negative result of the oral test, the student must not repeat the test on treatment of the measurements.
LEARNING EVALUATION CRITERIA
To pass in positive way the exam the student must prove, by means of the two written tests and the oral test, to have well learned the concepts exposed in the class. Each written test weighs 50% on the learning assessment and on the final mark. The treatment of the measurements solved in an unique solution obtains the sufficiency when the principal keys are correct. The questionnaire, which interests the program discussed during the class, must have at least a score equal to 18/30, to pass the exam. The average of the two test evaluations admits to the oral one. To overcome with positive result the oral test, the student must show to have a general knowledge of the contents, sufficiently exposed in correct way with use of suitable technical terminology. The maximum evaluation will be achieved showing a deep knowledge, exposed with complete and accurate use of the technical language.
LEARNING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
The mark of the treatment of the measurement test provides the 50% of the final assessment but the exam is not fully passed until the questionnaire, that concerns on all the matters of the course program, is solved in positive way. The oral examination can improve the final score.
FINAL MARK ALLOCATION CRITERIA
To pass the exam in positive way, the student must achieve at least the sufficiency, equal to eighteen points, in each of the tests before described and solve the oral exam. The maximum evaluation is reached showing a deep knowledge of the topics discussed during the course and the top marks is obtained performing each of the tests and the oral examination in correct and complete way.
G. Folloni, Topografia ed. Patron, Bologna. G. Fangi, Note di fotogrammetria, ed. Clua, Ancona. Slides and digital books related to the lessons of the course (Clua-typing office inside to the University)
- Ingegneria Edile (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))
- Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale (Corso di Laurea Triennale (DM 270/04))